The term “sex” refers to the biological distinctions between men and females, which are often connected to reproductive systems and processes. In most animals, including humans, the development of either a male or female reproductive system is governed by a mix of genetic, hormonal, and physiological variables. While it is common to think of sex as a binary system in which people are either male or female, there are also intersex variants in which people exhibit physical or genetic traits that are shared by both sexes or neither. Nevertheless, the term “sex” may also refer to interperson sexual conduct or action.
What kinds of sexual selection methods are there?
One option to attempt to pick your baby’s sex is via infertility therapy. Preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) are both used in this secure and extremely successful procedure.
The following steps:
Medication used during conception. In order to increase the number of eggs produced for fertilization during IVF rather than the solitary egg generally released each month, a round of fertility medications is first administered.
Egg locating. When your eggs are ready to be extracted, a doctor administers anaesthesia and checks your ovaries and follicles using an ultrasound probe inserted via your vagina (the fluid-filled sacs where eggs mature). To retrieve the eggs from the follicles in the ovaries, a tiny needle that is placed on top of the ultrasound probe punctures the vaginal wall.
Fertilization. You are eggs are fertilized with sperm in a petri dish after retrieval. (In vitro implies happening outside the organism; in this context, it refers to the process of fertilization that occurs outside from the body.)
Examination/testing. The embryos that arise from fertilization are inspected and evaluated five days later. An embryo’s three to five cells are extracted, and they are meticulously examined for genetic or chromosomal abnormalities, as well as the X and Y sex chromosomes. Preimplantation genetic testing is what this is (PGT).
Transfer. Your doctor will pass a small tube through your vagina and cervix to deposit the chosen fertilized eggs, which are now embryos, in your uterus during your subsequent period (the opening to the uterus). Your age, the quality of the embryos, and your reproductive history all affect how many embryos are transplanted during IVF.
Nevertheless, if an embryo has undergone PGT testing, just one will typically be transplanted as those that are unlikely to implant or result in a healthy pregnancy have been eliminated.
This method, which bears the name of its creator Ronald Ericsson, tries to distinguish between sperm that swims more quickly and those that move more slowly and produce girls. In conjunction with artificial insemination, it is used (AI).
Effectiveness The method promises a 70–75% success rate, with better outcomes for conceiving males than girls. These assertions have received support from certain independent research, but criticism from others. One research including more than 2,000 embryos from IVF patients found no significant difference in the probability of the chosen gender utilizing this technique.
How to do it A test tube is first filled with a gluey layer of fluid before a sperm sample is added. The method is sometimes known as albumin separation since the fluid is liquid albumin. The sperm normally swim downward, but the sperm that produce boys often swim more quickly and arrive at the bottom first. You are inseminated with the sperm that might help you produce a child of the desired sex after the fast and slow swimmers have been separated.
Pros inexpensive as compared to more advanced techniques Noninvasive Mostly safe
Cons Success is not guaranteed. While Ericsson has published his own study and asserts that the test has a success rate of around 75–80%, other reproductive specialists have not evaluated it or provided independent verification. Depending on your age and fertility, AI may not be as successful as IVF and may need many cycles to result in a baby. Cost Between $600 to $1,200 per try
Availability Just a small number of franchised clinics in the United States provide this treatment.
MicroSort (Flow cytometry) (Flow cytometry)
While MicroSort is not authorized for usage in the United States, you may have heard of it.
Using a flow cytometer, the male and female sperm cells are separated after the sperm have been stained with a fluorescent dye. The chosen sperm may then be implanted into the uterus during ovulation using AI or IVF after the sperm have been identified.
MicroSort claimed a 90 percent efficacy rate for female gender selection and an 85 percent efficacy rate for male gender selection in its maiden clinical study. Yet, no independent source has definitively verified these figures.
How to do it
After being cleaned, the sperm sample is dyed with a fluorescent dye that binds to the sperm DNA. A laser is used to inspect the stained cells to determine which ones light brighter. Since they have a little bit more genetic material than male sperm cells, female sperm cells will emit more light. Whether a female or male gender is desired, the sperm containing the X or Y chromosomes are separated. It takes roughly six to seven hours to sort everything.
may be frozen for future use or utilized for artificial intelligence (AI) or in vitro fertilization.
The United States doesn’t have access to this approach.
There is some worry that sperm modification methods can impact sperm quality. This continues to be researched.
Couples must have at least one child, utilize the method for the underrepresented gender, or be known carriers of a chromosomally associated condition in order to use Microsoft.
Each attempt of MicroSort costs roughly $3,200.
MicroSort is unavailable in the US and has not received FDA approval. It is still accessible in Mexico, Nigeria, North Cyprus, Japan, Malaysia, Cambodia, and Thailand.